UK new build plans

Energy companies are currently planning to build up to 16GW of new nuclear power capacity in the UK, with the first new reactors expected to be operational in the mid-2020s. This new generation of nuclear power stations will require a total investment of at least £60 billion.

The UK currently has 16 reactors with a total generating capacity of 10 gigawatts of electricity (GWe). These stations generate around a sixth of the UK’s electricity – yet all but one is scheduled to be retired by 2030. The exception is Sizewell B, the UK’s only pressurised water reactor (PWR), which began operations in 1995.

A government review of energy policy in 2006 gave the green light to a new generation of nuclear power. Planning and design certification laws were streamlined to support new build, but any new reactors must be wholly financed and built by the private sector with no direct subsidy.

According to a 2012 study from IPPR commissioned by EDF Energy, investment in new nuclear power stations could raise UK GDP by over £5 billion, create 32,500 jobs, and increase nuclear industry exports by up to £900 million.

Reactors

Three reactor designs are now being formally considered for UK new-build: Areva’s EPR (originally the European Pressurised Reactor), Westinghouse’s AP1000, and Hitachi-GE’s Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR).

Both the EPR and AP1000 are Generation III+ PWRs, offering a range of safety, economic and operational improvements over previous designs.

The EPR has an output of 1600MWe. Four EPRs are under construction in Finland, France and China.

The AP1000 has an output of 1150MWe. Construction is underway for AP1000 reactors on two sites in China and two sites in the US.

Both PWRs have undergone a generic design assessment (GDA) by the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) and Environment Agency. This assessment is intended to support the construction of a number of new nuclear power stations by approving a standard reactor design which can be built in different locations by different developers. Each build will still require a site-specific licence.

The final report on the two PWR designs was published in December 2011. Both were granted interim acceptance, although there were still some outstanding issues in both designs. The ONR and Environment Agency closed the final issue on the EPR in December 2012, and have granted a Design Acceptance Confirmation and Statement of Design Acceptability. Westinghouse restarted GDA on the AP1000 in August 2014, and now has an expected completion date of March 2017.

The Hitachi-GE ABWR began the GDA process in January 2013, following Hitachi’s purchase of UK developer Horizon Nuclear Power, and is now due to complete in December 2017. Four ABWRs are already in operation in Japan.

The 1300MWe ABWR is a significantly different design to the Areva and Westinghouse PWRs, operating at lower pressures and temperatures but requiring much larger pressure vessels.

The Chinese Hualong HPR-1000 reactor is also being considered for UK development (see below) by China General Nuclear Corporation (CGN) and EDF. CGN plans to submit the design to GDA imminently, and aiming for approval within five years.

See the ONR’s GDA pages for the latest information.

Development sites

The UK Government’s energy national policy statement in June 2011 confirmed that eight sites are suitable for new nuclear power stations by 2025, as shown on the map below. All are the sites of existing nuclear plant. Five of the sites have been acquired by new build developers.

EDF Energy is proposing to build two Areva EPRs at Hinkley Point, Somerset, and two at Sizewell, Suffolk. EDF also proposes to work with investment partner China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN) to deploy the Chinese Hualong HPR-1000 reactor at Bradwell, Essex.

Horizon Nuclear Power, owned by Hitachi, is planning to build two 1.3GWe ABWRs at Wylfa, Anglesey, and at least two at Oldbury, Gloucestershire.

NuGeneration is intending to build three Westinghouse AP1000s at the Moorside site at Sellafield, Cumbria.

For more information, see the developers page.

Supply chain opportunities

UK companies, from top-tier suppliers to specialist SMEs, can potentially supply around 60 per cent by value of the work required for this new generation of nuclear power stations. To compete, many companies will have to develop new capabilities and build new relationships with industry leaders.

The civil nuclear supply chain presents particular opportunities for the metals industries. A nuclear power station contains many tens of thousands of tonnes of steel in a variety of forms. Examples include:

  • Reactor pressure vessels, turbine rotors, and other components which use major forgings and castings.
  • Construction steels for the containment structure.
  • Precision-engineered components such as high-pressure seals, pumps and valves.

Only a relatively small portion of the total power station requires nuclear-specific quality requirements. The bulk of plant has similar requirements to other power generation industries.

Companies in the top tier are working with UK companies to build a supply chain, and are inviting suppliers to register their interest. Interested companies can find out more at the following supply chain portals:

For more information on the new build programme and the history of nuclear development in the UK, see the World Nuclear Association’s paper on Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom.